The Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion (Illustrated)
The Nazis in Germany circulated it in schools to indoctrinate young Germans. To this day, it enjoys a substantial readership in a multiplicity of countries. Despite its notoriety as a blatant fabrication, its appeal seems bottomless, particularly in the Arab world, where the first edition was published in in Egypt. Due to the Arab-Israeli conflict and the antisemitic rhetoric found in a number of Islamic religious texts, the bacillus of antisemitism thrives in Arab lands, as a recent survey indicated.
Fictional events in Joly's Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu , which appeared four years before Biarritz , may well have been the inspiration for Goedsche's fictional midnight meeting, and details of the outcome of the supposed plot. The Protocols purports to document the minutes of a lateth-century meeting attended by world Jewish leaders, the "Elders of Zion", who are conspiring to take over the world.
The Protocols appeared in print in the Russian Empire as early as , published as a series of articles in Znamya , a Black Hundreds newspaper owned by Pavel Krushevan.
In , it appeared in pamphlet form edited by Georgy Butmi de Katzman. These first three and subsequently more Russian language imprints were published and circulated in the Russian Empire during the —6 period as a tool for scapegoating Jews, blamed by the monarchists for the defeat in the Russo-Japanese War and the Revolution of Common to all three texts is the idea that Jews aim for world domination. Since The Protocols are presented as merely a document , the front matter and back matter are needed to explain its alleged origin.
The diverse imprints, however, are mutually inconsistent. The general claim is that the document was stolen from a secret Jewish organization. Since the alleged original stolen manuscript does not exist, one is forced to restore a purported original edition. This has been done by the Italian scholar, Cesare G. De Michelis in , in a work which was translated into English and published in , where he treats his subject as Apocrypha.
The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion
As fiction in the genre of literature, the tract was further analyzed by Umberto Eco in his novel Foucault's Pendulum in English translation in , in in chapter 6, "Fictional Protocols", of his Six Walks in the Fictional Woods and in his novel The Prague Cemetery. As the Russian Revolution unfolded, causing White movement -affiliated Russians to flee to the West, this text was carried along and assumed a new purpose. Until then, The Protocols had remained obscure;  it now became an instrument for blaming Jews for the Russian Revolution. It became a tool, a political weapon, used against the Bolsheviks who were depicted as overwhelmingly Jewish, allegedly executing the "plan" embodied in The Protocols.
The purpose was to discredit the October Revolution , prevent the West from recognizing the Soviet Union , and bring about the downfall of Vladimir Lenin 's regime. The great importance of The Protocols lies in its permitting antisemites to reach beyond their traditional circles and find a large international audience, a process that continues to this day. The forgery poisoned public life wherever it appeared; it was "self-generating; a blueprint that migrated from one conspiracy to another.
The purportedly Jewish authorship also helps to make the book more convincing. Its embrace of contradiction—that to advance, Jews use all tools available, including capitalism and communism, philo-Semitism and antisemitism, democracy and tyranny—made it possible for The Protocols to reach out to all: rich and poor, Right and Left , Christian and Muslim , American and Japanese. Pipes notes that the Protocols emphasizes recurring themes of conspiratorial antisemitism: "Jews always scheme", "Jews are everywhere", "Jews are behind every institution", "Jews obey a central authority, the shadowy 'Elders'", and "Jews are close to success.
The Protocols is widely considered influential in the development of other conspiracy theories [ citation needed ] , and reappears repeatedly in contemporary conspiracy literature, such as Jim Marrs ' Rule by Secrecy, which identifies the work as a Czarist forgery. Some recent editions proclaim that the "Jews" depicted in the Protocols are a cover identity for other conspirators such as the Illuminati ,  Freemasons , the Priory of Sion , or even, in the opinion of David Icke , " extra-dimensional entities ".
The chapter "In the Jewish Cemetery in Prague" from Goedsche's Biarritz , with its strong antisemitic theme containing the alleged rabbinical plot against the European civilization, was translated into Russian as a separate pamphlet in Golovinski's role in the writing of the Protocols is disputed by Michael Hagemeister, Richard Levy and Cesare De Michelis, who each write that the account which involves him is historically unverifiable and to a large extent provably wrong. De Michelis studies early Russian publications of the Protocols. The author described his meeting with a lady Yuliana Glinka , as it is known now who, after telling him about her mystical revelations, implored him to get familiar with the documents later known as the Protocols ; but after reading some excerpts, Menshikov became quite skeptical about their origin and did not publish them.
The Protocols were published at the earliest, in serialized form, from August 28 to September 7 O. Krushevan had initiated the Kishinev pogrom four months earlier. In , I succeeded through an acquaintance of mine the late Court Marshal Alexei Nikolayevich Sukotin of Chernigov in getting a manuscript that exposed with unusual perfection and clarity the course and development of the secret Jewish Freemasonic conspiracy, which would bring this wicked world to its inevitable end.
The person who gave me this manuscript guaranteed it to be a faithful translation of the original documents that were stolen by a woman from one of the highest and most influential leaders of the Freemasons at a secret meeting somewhere in France—the beloved nest of Freemasonic conspiracy. A subsequent secret investigation ordered by Pyotr Stolypin , the newly appointed chairman of the Council of Ministers, came to the conclusion that the Protocols first appeared in Paris in antisemitic circles around — The text was purportedly brought to the United States by a Russian army officer in ; it was translated into English by Natalie de Bogory personal assistant of Harris A.
Houghton , an officer of the Department of War in June ,  and Russian expatriate Boris Brasol soon circulated it in American government circles, specifically diplomatic and military, in typescript form,  a copy of which is archived by the Hoover Institute. In , there appeared an anonymously edited pamphlet by the Britons Publishing Society , a successor to The Britons , an entity created and headed by Henry Hamilton Beamish.
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This imprint was allegedly a translation by Victor E. Marsden , who died in October Most versions substantially involve "protocols", or minutes of a speech given in secret involving Jews who are organized as Elders , or Sages , of Zion ,  and underlies 24 protocols that are supposedly followed by the Jewish people. The Protocols has been proven to be a literary forgery and hoax as well as a clear case of plagiarism.
On October 27 and 28, , the Philadelphia Public Ledger published excerpts of an English language translation as the "Red Bible," deleting all references to the purported Jewish authorship and re-casting the document as a Bolshevik manifesto. Ackerman , who later became the head of the journalism department at Columbia University. On May 8, , an article  in The Times followed German translation and appealed for an inquiry into what it called an "uncanny note of prophecy". What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic?
If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment? Steed retracted his endorsement of The Protocols after they were exposed as a forgery. In the U. The articles were later collected into a multi-volume book series of the same name. They are 16 years old, and they have fitted the world situation up to this time. Rosenbaum wrote that "In , bowing to legal and economic pressure, Ford issued a retraction and apology—while disclaiming personal responsibility—for the anti-Semitic articles and closed the Dearborn Independent in In , an anonymous editor expanded the compilation with "Text and Commentary" pp — The production of this uncredited compilation was a page book, an inauthentic expanded edition of the twelfth chapter of Nilus's book on the coming of the anti-Christ.
It consists of substantial liftings of excerpts of articles from Ford's antisemitic periodical The Dearborn Independent. This text circulates most widely in the English-speaking world, as well as on the internet. The "Text and Commentary" concludes with a comment on Chaim Weizmann 's October 6, , remark at a banquet: "A beneficent protection which God has instituted in the life of the Jew is that He has dispersed him all over the world". Marsden, who was dead by then, is credited with the following assertion:.
It proves that the Learned Elders exist. It proves that Dr. Weizmann knows all about them. It proves that the desire for a "National Home" in Palestine is only camouflage and an infinitesimal part of the Jew's real object. It proves that the Jews of the world have no intention of settling in Palestine or any separate country, and that their annual prayer that they may all meet "Next Year in Jerusalem" is merely a piece of their characteristic make-believe.
It also demonstrates that the Jews are now a world menace, and that the Aryan races will have to domicile them permanently out of Europe. According to writer Peter Grose, Allen Dulles , who was in Constantinople developing relationships in post- Ottoman political structures, discovered "the source" of the documentation and ultimately provided him to The Times. In the first article of Graves' series, titled "A Literary Forgery", the editors of The Times wrote, "our Constantinople Correspondent presents for the first time conclusive proof that the document is in the main a clumsy plagiarism.
He has forwarded us a copy of the French book from which the plagiarism is made. Despite this widespread and extensive debunking, the Protocols continued to be regarded as important factual evidence by antisemites. Dulles, a successful lawyer and career diplomat, attempted to persuade the US State Department to publicly denounce the forgery, but without success.
The History of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion
A translation made by an Arab Christian appeared in Cairo in or , this time as a book. The first translation by an Arab Muslim was also published in Cairo, but only in The selling of the Protocols edited by German antisemite Theodor Fritsch by the National Front during a political manifestation in the Casino of Berne on June 13, , [d] led to the Berne Trial in the Amtsgericht district court of Berne , the capital of Switzerland , on October 29, Working on behalf of the defense was German antisemitic propagandist Ulrich Fleischhauer.
On May 19, , two defendants Theodore Fischer and Silvio Schnell were convicted of violating a Bernese statute prohibiting the distribution of "immoral, obscene or brutalizing" texts  while three other defendants were acquitted. The court declared the Protocols to be forgeries, plagiarisms, and obscene literature. Judge Walter Meyer, a Christian who had not heard of the Protocols earlier, said in conclusion,.
I hope the time will come when nobody will be able to understand how in nearly a dozen sane and responsible men were able for two weeks to mock the intellect of the Bern court discussing the authenticity of the so-called Protocols, the very Protocols that, harmful as they have been and will be, are nothing but laughable nonsense.
A panel of three judges acquitted them, holding that the Protocols , while false, did not violate the statute at issue because they were "political publications" and not "immoral obscene publications Schundliteratur " in the strict sense of the law. The court refused to impose the fees of defense of the acquitted defendants to the plaintiffs, and the acquitted Theodor Fischer had to pay Fr.
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A similar trial in Switzerland took place at Basel. At the same time, chief rabbi Marcus Ehrenpreis of Stockholm who also witnessed at the Berne Trial sued Alfred Zander who contended that Ehrenpreis himself had said that the Protocols were authentic referring to the foreword of the edition of the Protocols by the German antisemite Theodor Fritsch. In closing, let me remind you that I am giving you the benefit of the doubt by even responding to your threatening message.
But thanks for writing. This email will not self-destruct in 5 seconds. Good luck, Scott. I bet you thought you could get away with your subject line of vile, anti-Semitic vitriol wrapped in conspiracy theory idiocy. But, I finally thought for myself, did intense research and found that these hateful, conspiracy theories were specious at best.
The Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion
Whenever the words Sabbatean Frankist were used, it always referred to the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Sabbateans had many writings which due to the secretive and revolutionary nature of their cult were kept hidden. The original Protocols seem to have been one of those that were no longer secret after parts of it were printed as minutes of a covert meeting in Paris in , minutes that were later published in Russia by Nilus.
This statement lays the groundwork for the most horrific anti-Semitic propaganda ever published which turns out to be pure fabrication. This book is about lies and slander. Goedsche was a postal clerk and a spy for the Prussian secret police. He had been forced to leave the postal work due to his part in forging evidence in the prosecution against the Democratic leader Benedict Waldeck in These works no doubt furnished the Russian secret police Okhrana with a means with which to strengthen the position of the weak Czar Nicholas II and discredit the reforms of the liberals who sympathized with the Jews.
To this end they used the Protocols, which were first published in a public edition by the mystic priest Sergius Nilus in A variant text of the Protocols was published by George Butmi in and again in In his later editions, Nilus claimed that the Protocols had been read secretly at the First Zionist Congress at Basel in , while Butmi, in his edition, wrote that they had no connection with the new Zionist movement, but, rather, were part of the Masonic conspiracy.
In the nineteenth century the Jews had nearly everywhere — though not in Russia — achieved civil equality and thus taken their place in modern society. Some had amassed great wealth, a few — for example, the house of Rothschild — had even attained real influence, and inspired a venomous anti-Semitism.
This was the purpose of the Basel congress. But, if we believe Nilus, its true, secret aim was just the opposite; that is, the foundation of an uncontested world domination by the Jews. He claimed that the public congress was a mere blind for a number of far more important secret sessions. In these secret sessions the Zionist leaders set forth their plan for Jewish world conquest.
These speeches were taken down in shorthand and entered in the minutes. But the courier was a traitor. On the way he spent the night at a little city in Baden. In later editions he gives still other versions. There is but one point to which he always adheres: that he himself had received the papers from a certain Suchotin, marshal of nobility in the district of Chernigov, who had received them from Ratchkovsky. It was first published in Russia in , translated into multiple languages, and disseminated internationally in the early part of the 20th century.
Henry Ford funded printing of , copies that were distributed throughout the US in the s. Adolf Hitler was a major proponent. It is still widely available today in numerous languages, in print and on the Internet, and continues to be presented by some proponents as a genuine document. To what extent the whole existence of this people is based on a continuous lie is shown incomparably by the Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion, so infinitely hated by the Jews. They are based on a forgery; the Frankfurter Zeitung moans and screams once every week: the best proof that they are authentic.
What many Jews may do unconsciously is here consciously exposed. And that is what matters. It is completely indifferent from what Jewish brain these disclosures originate; the important thing is that with positively terrifying certainty they reveal the nature and activity of the Jewish people and expose their inner contexts as well as their ultimate final aims. The best criticism applied to them, however, is reality.
Anyone who examines the historical development of the last hundred years from the standpoint of this book will at once understand the screaming of the Jewish press. For once this book has become the common property of a people, the Jewish menace may be considered as broken Hitler, Adolf. I am the only living witness but I must say the truth. Contrary to the opinion of the National Socialists, that the Jews were a highly organized group, the appalling fact was that they had no organization whatsoever.
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The mass of the Jewish people were taken complete by surprise. They did not know at all what to do; they had no directives or slogans as to how they should act. This is the greatest lie of anti-Semitism because it gives the lie to that old slogan that the Jews are conspiring to dominate the world and that they are so highly organized. In reality, they had no organization of their own at all, not even an information service.